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The increasing threat to your patients


Carbapenemase-producing bacteria are on the rise.1 Their epidemiology is global, and they are spreading, representing a significant challenge for public health.1,2
                                   
Monitoring the spread of CPE allows us to identify outbreaks, provide infection-control measures, and assess the risk posed to vulnerable populations.1–3

But CPE knows no borders,2 and only through remaining informed about its epidemiology, we can work together to contain its spread.


Overall, the prevalence of CPE has increased in European hospitals2

 

Adapted from: Brolund A, et al. 2019.2

But what does it look like for the UK?
 

CPE

MBL

KPC

The incidence of confirmed CPE in the UK between 2011–20184,5‡§

The incidence of confirmed MBL in the UK between 2011–20184,5‡§
Adapted from the English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance (ESPAUR) report, 2021.4,5
 

The incidence of confirmed KPC in the UK between 2011–20184,5‡§
Adapted from the English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance (ESPAUR) report, 2021.4,5

OXA 48

The incidence of confirmed OXA 48 in the UK between 2011–20184,5‡§
Adapted from the English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance (ESPAUR) report, 2021.4,5


What is the prevalence of carbapenemases in your region and across the UK?

Geographical distribution of three key carbapenemases in England between October 2020 to March 2023:ǁ6,7

 

MBL

KPC

OXA 48

Adapted from the Health Protection Report, 2023.6,7

Adapted from the Health Protection Report, 2023.6,7

Adapted from the Health Protection Report, 2023.6,7

With increasing rates of CPE across the UK, it is imperative that physicians are aware of the resistance trends in their region

Looking to learn more about carbapenamases? 

Discover the "Big Five" and key differences between themLoading

Footnotes:
*The epidemiological staging system for measuring the extent of CRE spread across healthcare facilities was developed in 2010.2
National experts representing all 37 invited European countries completed the 2018 capacity survey.2

The rates depicted are based on the number of confirmed CPE isolates referred to Public Health England’s Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections (AMRHAI) Reference Unit between 2011 and 2018, excluding blood cultures.4
§Data from 2019 onwards have been excluded due to a change in the referral criteria that occurred in 2019, subsequently resulting in a drop in CPE isolates referred to the AMRHAI Reference Unit.4
ǁDuring this time, other carbapenemase families, including GES, GIM, IMI, and SME, represented ≤2% of the population of acquired carbapenemase-producing bacteria.6,7

Abbreviations:
CPE, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales; CRE, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales; GES, Guiana extended-spectrum β-lactamase; GIM, Germany imipenemase; IMI, imipenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase; IMP, imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase; KPC, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; MBL, metallo-β-lactamase; NDM, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase; OXA, oxacillinase; SME, Serratia marcescens enzymes; VIM, Verona Integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase.

References:
1. Bonomo RA, et al. Clin Infect Dis 2018;66:1290–7
2. Brolund A, et al. Euro Surveill 2019;24:1900123
3.
World Health Organization 2020. Antibiotic resistance. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance. Published July 2020; accessed March 2024
4. UK Health Security Agency. English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance (ESPAUR). Report 2020 to 2021. Available at: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/20221020175458/https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-surveillance-programme-antimicrobial-utilisation-and-resistance-espaur-report. Published November 2021 accessed March 2024.
5. UK Health Security Agency. 2021. ESPAUR report 2020 to 2021: chapter 3 data tables; ‘Number of confirmed CPE isolates referred to PHE’s AMRHAI Reference Unit (excluding blood cultures) 2011 to 2020.’ Available at:
https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/20221020175458/https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-surveillance-programme-antimicrobial-utilisation-and-resistance-espaur-report
6. UK Health Security Agency. Quarterly laboratory surveillance of acquired carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in England: October 2020 to March 2023. Health Protection Report. Volume 17 Number 7. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1164680/hpr0723-CPGNB-Q12023.pdf. Published June 2023; accessed March 2024.
7. UK Health Security Agency. 2023. Acquired carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in England: October 2020 to March 2023 – data tables; ‘Geographical distribution of acquired carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacterial episodes by carbapenemase family (England): October 2020 to March 2023’ Available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-laboratory-surveillance. Published July 2021 accessed March 2024.

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